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Working papers


Blockchain and Smart-contract : a pioneering Approach of inter-firms Relationships ? The case of franchise networks

Richard Baron, Magali Chaudey, Working paper GATE 2019-17
This paper is interested in the analysis of Blockchains and Smart-contracts applied to inter-firms relationships, in particular the franchise networks. After defining the Blockchain technology and the Smart-contract as a particular type of contract stored in blockchains, we question the theory of contracts and its conception(s) of transactions, information asymmetries, firm or inter-firm relations. To better understand the challenges of blockchain for franchise networks and identify opportunities for implementation in these networks, we present some relevant applications of this technology. We identify different ways where blockchain technology could improve the network management and therefore their performance : the supply-chain, the brand-name protection, security and transparency in the payment of fees and royalties, access to reliable information via an oracle.

Informal Work along the Business Cycle : Evidence from Argentina

Julien Albertini, Arthur Poirier, Thepthida Sopraseuth, Working paper GATE 2019-16
We shed light on the driving forces behind unemployment fluctuations and short-run changes in the informality rate on the Argentine labor market. Using Argentine survey data, we measure worker flows between formal employment, informal employment, unemployment and non-participation. We propose a methodology to correct for the discontinuity of Argentine survey data and that is able to compute consistent time series of quarterly ins and outs of informal work. Using variance decompositions and counterfactual exercises, we show that the ins and outs of informal employment are key drivers of labor market fluctuations. In particular, outflows from unemployment to informal employment account for 37% of fluctuations in the unemployment rate. In addition, our analysis suggests that informality is : (i) a flexible sector that is used in recessionary periods as a buffer against income losses and (ii) a stepping stone towards formal employment. The observed large changes in the informality rate are well explained by the change in job mobility between the formal and informal sectors as well as variations in hirings from unemployment and non-participation in the informal sector.

New Results for Additive and Multiplicative Risk Apportionment

Henri Loubergé, Yannick Malevergne, Béatrice Rey, Working paper GATE 2019-15
We start by pointing out a simple property of risk apportionment with additive risks in the general stochastic dominance context defined by Eeckhoudt et al. (2009b). Quite generally, an observed preference for risk apportionment with additive risks in a specific risk environment is preserved when the decision-maker is confronted to other risk situations, so long as the total order of stochastic dominance relationships among pairs of risks remains the same. Our objective is to check whether this simple property also holds for multiplicative risk environments. We show that this is not the case, in general, but that the property holds and more strongly for the case of CRRA utility functions. This is due to a particular feature of CRRA functions that we unveil.